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Psychological disorders and treatments

Cyclothymia

Cyclothymia also called Cyclothymic Disorder, is a kind of Chronic Mood Disorder broadly think to be a more chronic but mild form of Bipolar Disorder. Cyclothymia is associated with many mood swings and periods of hypomanic symptoms but the symptoms differs from Hypomanic Episode also with periods of mild to moderate Depression but differs from Major Depressive Episode. 

A person with cyclothymia is well balanced at a baseline level but feels a noticeable change to an emotional high in subthreshold Hypomanic episode's of elation or euphoria like symptoms of Mania but with low level of severity and generally cycle to emotional lows having mild Depressive symptoms. For the diagnosis of Cyclothymic an individual must experience the alternating pattern of emotional highs and lows for at least two years with no more than two consecutive symptom-free months. The duration must be at least one year for children and adolescents.

Diagnosis of Cyclothymia is  more common, but is not as persist…

Cotard Delusion ( Cotard Syndrome)

Cotard Delusion is a limited Mental Illness in which the individual graspe  at the delusional belief that he is already dead, is putrefying, have lost his blood or internal organs or he doesn't exist. A statistical analysis shows that hundred-patient cohort stipulated that the 69%of Cotard Syndrome patients showed the symptoms of denial of self-existenc. paradoxically, Delusions of immortality is present in 55% of patients.
A neurologist Jules Cotard in 1988 described the problem as Le délire des négations ("The Delirium of Negation"), a psychiatric syndrome of varied severity. In mild situation the individual shows self-hurthing and despair, but in severe conditions the individual shows  Chronic Psychiatric Depression and intense delusions of negation.  The Cotard delusion is not mentioned in DSM or ICD-10. The central symptom in Cotard's syndrome is delusion of negation. The individual affected with this Mental Illness generally denies the existence of certain body …

Claustrophobia

Claustrophobia is the fear of enclosed spaces in which the individual is unable to escape. It may be shown in many situations or stimuli, like  crowded to capacity, elevator,  even tight-necked clothing and rooms without window. It is originally a type of an Anxiety Disorders, which can lead to panic attacks. The onset of claustrophobia has been related to more than one factor like small size of the amygdala,  a genetic predisposition to fear small spaces or classical conditioning. One study indicates about 5–7% of the population of the world is affected by extreme claustrophobia, but people rarely receive some kind of treatment for this Mental Illness. There are two main symptoms of Claustrophobia: fear of suffocation and the fear of restriction. Fear of restriction is experienced in at least one of the following situation: cars, airplane locked rooms, tunnels, small rooms, train, caves ,elevators and it can be experienced in trivial matters like waiting in line, sitting in a haircut…

Catatonia

Catatonia is a state of behavioural abnormality and neurogenic motor immobility  manifested by stupor. In 1874 by Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum described it first time in the history. In DSM-5 Catatonia is not mentioned as a particular disorder yet it is linked with psychiatric conditions like Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia Catatonic Type, Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Narcolepsy, Substance Abuse Disorders and other Mental Disorders. It can be result from adverse reaction to medications. Individuals with Catatonia show  persistent hyperactive motor activity or severe loss of motor skill. The individual with this Mental Illness may remain in rigid posture for several hours without noticing external stimuli. They show stereotyped repetitive movements. They repeat  phrases having no meanings. Symptoms include stupor, Catalepsy, waxy flexibility, mutism,  negativism, posturing, mannerism, agitation,echolalia and echopraxia. To meet the criteria of Catatonia there must be present three…

Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia Nervosa, also called Bulimia. An Eating Disorder that is identified by binge eating accompanied l by purging.  Eating a large amount of food in a short time is referenced as Binge Eating however Purging signifies the struggle to get rid of the food consumed. This can be done through taking laxatives or vomitting . Different attempts to lose weight are the use of  stimulants, diuretics,excessive exercise or water fasting. Many individuals having Bulimia are at a normal weight. The compelling of vomiting can show thickened skin on the knuckles and breakdown of the teeth. Bulimia Nervosa is mostly linked with other Mental Disorders such as Depression, Anxiety, and problems associated with drugs or alcohol. They are at a higher risk of suicide and self-harm.
Bulimia Nervosa is more predictable among those having a close relative with the condition. The percentage risk due to genetics is between 30% and 80%. Some other risk elements for the development of this Mental Illness include …

Substance Abuse And Related Disorders

Alcohol use disorder  is a psychological disorder which is among group of alcohol-related disorders. This is a psychological disorder in which a person has a problematic pattern of alcohol use which leads to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, remain for a period of one year. The use of alcohol in larger amounts or for a long period than was intended. Unsuccessful efforts or constant desire to control alcohol use. The person with this psychological disorder spent most of  the time  in activities needed to obtain alcohol, use alcohol, or recovôr from its effects. Uncontrollable desire or urge to use alcohol. Recurrent use of alcohol which results in a failure to maintain important role obligations at home, school, or work. Social or interpersonal problems are created due to persistent  use of alcohol. Major social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced due to the use of alcohol. The person use alcohol…

Bipolar Disorder

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Bipolar Disorder, also called Manic Depression, is a psychological disorder which creates periods of elevated mood and periods of Depression. The significant elevated mood is divided into two types depending upon its level of severity and present symptoms of Psychosis known as  Hypomania or Mania.A person feels or behaves abnormally happy, irritable or energetic during Mania. The persons with this Mental disorder make decisions with poor thought or without thinking about consequences. During Manic phases the the sleep requirements generally reduced. The symptoms of Depression include poor eye contact with other persons, crying  and a negative interpretation of life.The individuals having this Mental illness are at an extensive risk of suicide greater than 6% over 20 year. Self harm happens in 30-40 percent. Further Mental health conditions like Substance Use Disorder and Anxiety Disorders are generally related. Genetic and environmental factors contribute in the development of this Me…